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By Al Capwn
I don't have a blog, and I am not veteran or post enough content to justify making one - so while these musings may be better served in that format, I will leave it here for anyone who is interested to view and chime in. It just so happens that my best friend happens to work at Rustoleum as a colorist; so lately I have been picking his brain since he has an extensive knowledge about pigments, paint make up, and the chemical intricacies therein.
As I have delved further and further into the hobby, I have been looking more into the deep subjects of color theory and how paint is made/composed. After reading James Gurney's Color and Light, as well as Michael Wilcox's Blue & Yellow Don't Make Green, I was really intrigued about what exactly paint is and how exactly color interactions work. Now I am guilty as the next person in owning WAY too many paints - not to say anything about minis!
While color mixing may seem irrelevant to some, understanding how paints function can help even those of us who own a complete gamut of convenience mixed colors. This post is about exploring more of the technical and "scientific" aspects of paint and color theory to hopefully assist others in understanding the what and why of paint.
Rethinking Paint Colors - Subtractive Color:
Up until recently, I have always viewed the primary colors as Yellow, Red and Blue, and with those you can mix secondary colors; Green, Orange, and Purple. While this is technically true after a fashion, the difficulty lies with pigments themselves. Pigments do not actually *contain* color. Instead, they absorb most of the light spectrum *except* a specific wavelength of color. As Michael Wilcox states, "Of all the pigments available to the painter, none can be described as pure in hue. There is simply no such thing as a pure red, yellow or blue paint." That means chemically, there isn't a paint pigment out there that returns a pure Red - unlike in say digital art where a specifically purely calibrated hue can be made, paint is limited by the properties of the physical pigments themselves.
As Michael Wilcox theorizes with a colour bias wheel (bottom-right), primary pigments almost certainly lean towards secondaries. This follows the concept of the Munsell Wheel (bottom-left). You may have heard of a split-complimentary color palette, and this is the reason why. Artistically, these have been described as "Warm" and "Cool" versions of the primaries, but scientifically, they are colors that absorb or reflect more of a particular wavelength. There are Violet-Reds (Cool Reds, often called "Crimson") and Orange-Reds (or Warm Reds, that lean more towards Orange), Violet-Blues and Green-Blues, and Orange-Yellows and Green-Yellows.
One the concepts to understand when mixing paints is that you are not creating a color, but rather you are effectively destroying colors and what remains is what is returned to the eye. Referencing the above color bias wheel, if you were to mix a Violet-Blue and a Violet-Red together, both containing pigment(s) that return a great deal of Violet wavelength, the little remaining Blue/Orange and Red/Green wavelengths in each pigment would cancel each other out, leaving the Violet behind. This would yield a more saturated or more pure hue of Violet. Conversely, mixing a Green-Blue and a Orange-Red ("Warm" Red) would be a very desaturated Violet, with more of a gray tone.
Keep in mind that this doesn't make a color "bad"; desatured tones by including more complimentary colors is a very useful tool! In fact, for making shadows, using a great deal of complimentary colors to desaturate is a great technique. The problem is when these colors come about unexpectedly; after all, you can have a very "intense" Red and a very "intense" Blue, but mixing them may not produce a very intense Violet if they are "moving away" from each other.
Now that is all being said, it is time to forget it...sort of. RGB is based upon the concept of Additive Mixing, or how colored light interacts. With additive mixing, fully saturated Red/Green/Blue light will produce White light. However, in paint pigments, it should be pretty obvious that mixing pigment primaries of Red/Yellow (or Green)/Blue together will not yield White. This is due to Subtractive Mixing, where pigments effectively destroy each other ala Thunderdome in Mad Max, and only the survivors reflect light back.
A more modern approach to color theory and pigments is CMYK or Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and "Key" (or commonly known, Black). Adding these colors into the standard primaries gives us the "Yurmby" wheel. If you have looked at a color printer, for example, the colors used are NOT Blue/Red/Yellow, but rather Cyan/Magenta/Yellow. This is because due to the subtractive nature of pigment/ink mixing. These colors present a larger printable gamut (i.e. range) of color; for example, without White, it is difficult to produce a Pink tone with Red vs Magenta. A thin Magenta will read more Pink than a thin Red.
Printers do not use White ink and instead leverage the paper for white, effectively printers are printing in an underpainting style. However, we as artists DO use White pigments and this makes things a bit more complicated as we do work with Tints (White) and Shades (Black).
Like most science, the direct answer regarding an accurate color wheel is: it is complicated. For observable light, there is a bit more consistency and repeatability. However, when working with "tiny wavelength absorbing/reflecting mirrors" of pigments, things become a bit more complex. Additionally, there are other aspects that that go beyond the basics, such as the effect of specular and perception of color. It gets really heady when you start dipping into Kubelka-Monk Theory and K/S.
Most paint is made up of 3 parts:
Pigment - particles that absorb and reflect certain wavelengths of light.
Binder - The 'medium' or 'glue' which holds the pigment in suspension and forms a film. For acrylic paint, this is the actual acrylic part.
Solvent - The liquid that allows paint to be viscous; as it dries, it allows the binder and pigment to harden forming the film. For acrylic paint, the solvent is water.
Adjusting the ratios of these can have some interesting, and sometimes disastrous effects in terms of the stability of the paint. For example, introducing too much solvent, and the binder and pigment lattice structure can break apart. This can cause "coffee staining" or splotchy spots where the bonds pull apart, leaving areas without a film at all.
The pigments in paint are held in a suspension. Like hot chocolate mix, there are tiny particles that are suspended in a liquid. Given enough time or evaporation, the liquid will leave these granules behind. If you have ever mixed a packet of Swiss Miss cocoa, you know that the mix can settle at the bottom - and that attempting to add dry powder to a liquid is more difficult than adding a liquid to a dry powder. This is another reason why mixing your paints is important because it is easy for the heavier pigments to tend to settle out of the binder/solvent solution.
Speaking of solutions, that is the main difference between paints and inks. Inks, specifically alcohol inks that use dyes, are a solution. The staining dye actually becomes homogeneous with the liquid. Just like dissolving sugar or extracting coffee/tea, there isn't any particulates that separate out. However, most dyes are not lightfast - a property that will be discussed in more detail further. Acrylic inks that use pigments are not "true" inks insomuch as they are composed just like an acrylic paint. The difference being the smaller size of the pigments and the viscosity of the binder/solvent being much thinner.
Outside of the 3 main components for paint composition, there are also some optional additives that some manufacturer's include in their paint. These can be things such as:
Extenders/retarders, which delay the setup of the paint film, allowing for more mixing to occur before drying. Thinners, which dilute the pigment to binder ratio, usually increasing translucency and viscosity - commonly this is done with water for acrylic paints. Flow Aid, which reduces the surface tension of paint, allowing it to flow more easily and level - Reaper is known for adding a bit of flow aid into their formulation. Opacifiers, which increase the opacity of a paint - usually some type of calcium or bicarbonate. Matting agents, which reduces the glossiness of acrylic medium. Fillers, which are commonly used in student or inexpensive paints to reduce cost and add mass without adding more pigment.
You can add some of these additives yourself to your favorite brand of paint to adjust the handling qualities. The most commonly added is solvent/thinner in the form of water to "thin your paints" to reduce the viscosity and lower the overall density of the paint, building up multiple thinner layers of paint films in a "layering" fashion.
Designs include cobblestone, cobblestone, green 40K, and yeah I'll pick up more cobblestone.
Made in the USA. Economic disruption in China has shut down non-essential production, including plastic injection figures.
Q&A on Dakka : https://www.dakkadakka.com/dakkaforum/posts/list/0/785873.page
This is Tamiya's 1/35 scale Sherman Jumbo - a significantly up-armored Sherman tank designed to be at the head of advancing columns and function as an assault tank. Two hundred and fifty-four were built through the spring and summer of 1944 with the first batches hitting the European front in the fall of '44. All were initially armed with a 75mm gun. A number were later converted to the long barrel 76mm gun because it fired a more effective high-velocity anti-tank round. The Sherman Jumbos served through the end of the war in Europe.
Tamiya's kit dates back to 1987 and is based on Tamiya's standard M4A3 Sherman tank issued in the early 80s. Tamiya added a new larger turret, new armor plates for the upper hull sides, and a new glacis plate for the hull front. Unfortunately, they neglected to provide a new and much larger front transmission cover. Numerous reviews have also mentioned the turret shape and size are off, but I've yet to read/hear where it's off or by how much. I spent some time looking over book and interweb pics and the height of the turret might be a bit low. Maybe. I believe the Jumbo is out of production, but the originall M4A3 is still available. Not worry; new, more detailed and more complex Jumbos are available.
I've built a new transmission cover using the old cover as a foundation, then adding sheets and strips of Evergreen .040 plastic to beef it up. The turret height was raised with .030 strips of plastic between the upper and lower turret halves. Additional details were added to the hull and turret - basically anywhere you see white, copper wire, brass, or green putty. I also used a Dremel tool and a small dove-tail cutter to enhance the very prominent hull weld beads. The case transmission cover and the turret sides were coated with liquid glue (in sections) and stippled with a siff wire brush to replicate the cast texture of the real items. You can see the turret texture in the photo.
The pic shows the mocked up upper and lower hull components and the turret, three of the six bogie wheel assemblies (three more on the other side), the mantlet, and turned aluminum gun barrel. Painting next - any color you want as long as it's olive-by-God-drab.
Qs and Cs welcomed; no secrets here...
These were the third installment of my Bones 1 WIPs.
Which is metal? Which is BONES?
You'll have to check out the WIP to decide!
Hope you enjoy, and I hope it helps people see that there isn't always a loss of detail between BONES and Pewter.
This is Tamiya's 1.35 scale Centaur, a 95mm howitzer support tank designed to support British and Canadian troops on D-Day. It's based on the Cromwell I built earlier (Ordnance 2, I think). Apart from drilling out the MG barrels and stowage, it's pretty much out-of-the-box. Aeromaster (no longer in business - ) paint with Reaper MSPs, colored pencils, and chalk pastels for the weathering. The boxes on the engine deck are resin, while the tarp, netting, and small cans are scratch-buit. Still no mud, sorry...
Qs and Cs welcomed. See you on the RC ordnance tables.
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