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    • By Wren
      I put together a few documents related to using Bones. I've submitted these to the Craft section of the website, but as it may be a little while before Reaper has the time available to add them, Bryan suggested that I post them here.
       
      Bones - Frequently Asked Questions
      Bones - Preparation (mould line removal, glue, putty, etc.)
      Bones - The First Coat is the Difference (this document)
       
      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
      Painting Bones Miniatures: The First Coat is the Difference
       
      One of the revolutionary features of Bones miniatures is that you can paint them straight out of the package. Because this is such a departure from recommendations for painting metal or resin miniatures, it is understandable that this feature raises questions and concerns for painters unfamiliar with Bones. Painters familiar with other types of miniatures will find that there are some differences in how the first coat of paint behaves, or that there are painting techniques or substances that require a little tweaking to use as a first coat on Bones figures.
       
      The Bones material is a little hydrophobic, meaning that it tends to repel water. Paint diluted with water, sometimes even just a little water, may display a tendency to bead up or pull away from crevices or higher raised areas. The more water added to the paint, the greater this effect. The first coat of paint applied to the surface can also take a little longer to dry than usual.
       

       
      The image on the left is a Bones figure straight out of the blister, the one on the right is a primed Dark Heaven metal miniature. Each was painted with a brushstroke of Master Series Walnut Brown paint of various dilutions. From right to left: undiluted; 1:1 paint water ratio; heavily diluted. On the Bones figure, the stripes painted with diluted paint display beading and pulling away, but the stripe painted with undiluted paint covers smoothly with clean edges.
       
      Once you apply a first coat of paint, primer or other appropriate surface preparation to a Bones miniature, you can freely use paint of any dilution and the full array of painting techniques!
       
      Painters who prefer to use thinned base coats, those who like to start with a dark wash over white primer, and those who use black or custom coloured primer need not despair! The following information will help you find ways to tweak your preferred techniques to work with the Bones material. It also includes information about brands of primer, paint and other substances that are known to work or not work well with Bones, and tests of the utility and durability of certain of these products on Bones.
       
       
      Slightly Thicker Paint Will Not Obscure All the Sculpted Details
       
      For years painters have been reading tips and tutorials that exhort them to thin their paints so as not to obscure the detail sculpted into their figures, and to obtain a better quality paint job. While it’s definitely the case that using excessively thick paint can affect detail and paint quality, I think it is also true that some people are worrying too much about this in regards to painting Bones.
       
      Reaper Master Series and Master Series HD are produced with a consistency pretty close to ideal for base coats. Several other miniature paint lines are produced in a similar consistency, or require only a small amount of water to reach the correct consistency. Two or three layers of such paint will not clog up all the detail on your model.
       
      Also, remember that when you paint metal or resin miniatures, you normally paint over a coat of primer. One layer of undiluted paint on a Bones miniature is equivalent in thickness (if not thinner) than one or two coats of primer on a metal or resin figure.
       

       
      The picture above is of four Bones bases. The tiny text relief sculpted into the bottom of these is a perfect way to test whether paint coats obscure small detail. Each of these bases was given four coats of a substance, and then brushed over with a paint wash to bring out the detail. (The bottles of paint and primer used in this test were fairly fresh, no more than a year or two old.)
       
      From left to right, the bases were coated with four coats of undiluted Master Series Pure White, four coats of undiluted Master Series White Primer, and four coats of undiluted Master Series Brush-On Sealer. I prepared a second base with the Brush-On Sealer as the wash didn’t quite turn out on the first. The word ‘Miniatures’ has lost a little detail on the base coated with four undiluted coats of paint, but apart from that both it and the primer coated base still have excellent detail. The text is still mostly legible on the bases coated with Brush-On Sealer, but some detail has been obscured.
       
       
      Wash Bones Figures Before Painting
       
      Many people find that the paint is less likely to bead up if the figure has been washed. Also, if you’ve had your figure out of the blister for a while, or you’ve handled it to remove mould lines or otherwise prepare it, you should clean it before painting, as it probably has dust and skin oils on it that may repel paint or cause paint to chip off after it has dried. All you need to clean it is some dishwashing liquid and an old toothbrush. Give it a scrub, and then rinse it really well to get off all the soap. Let it dry before painting. (You can hurry up the drying with a hairdryer set on low.)
       
       
      Black Primer? Custom Colours? Paint One Coat of Paint over the Entire Figure First!
       
      Some painters prefer to paint over black or gray primer. Others start with a primer of a particular colour to speed up painting units. For example, you could paint a coat of khaki on a unit of modern army figures and be half way finished painting their uniforms. One way to get the same effect as a dark wash over white primer on Bones is to first apply an all-over coat of white paint, followed by a dark wash. (Keep reading for other ways to do washes directly on Bones.)
       
       
      Some Primers Work on Bones
       
      Traditional metal or resin miniatures need to be primed before any paint is applied. Paint applied over bare metal does not adhere well, and rubs off with even light handling. Primer etches into the metal on a microscopic level. Paint adheres well to primer, so using it forms a stronger bond. Bones figures do not suffer from this issue! Acrylic paint painted directly onto the Bones surface is as durable, if not more durable, than if you use paint over primer on Bones.
       
      If you still prefer to use primer, Reaper’s Brush-On Primer works well on Bones, and is available in black and white.
       
      Another product people sometimes ask about is gesso. Fine arts painters use gesso to prepare canvases for painting. Some people have experimented with liquid gesso as a primer for miniatures, Bones and otherwise. People have reported it working in terms of creating a surface that you can paint thinned paint over. Reports vary as to how durable the material is, so it may not be the best choice for miniatures that are going to be handled.
       
      For those who prefer to use spray primer, the best option is to use an airbrush to apply a coat of acrylic paint to the Bones figure. Reaper Master Series paint thins well with Golden or Liquitex Airbrush Medium, and maintains its strong adhesion, though I have found that adding airbrush medium does noticeably increase the drying time of the paint.
       
      Aerosol spray primers and some spray paints can have some issues with Bones (and with other plastics). The chemicals in some of these primers and paints do not react well with Bones. The main effect seems to be that the primer never completely cures, remaining tacky to the touch. Some will also fail to form a bond with the Bones material.
       
      The following is a list of aerosol paints and primers that people on the Reaper forums have reported testing on Bones. Please consider the list just a guide. The best idea is to test your chosen spray by using it on a small Bones figure you don’t care about a lot. After you give the spray time to cure, carefully look over the figure to make sure the chemicals in the spray haven’t reacted with the Bones material to melt or otherwise damage it. If not, test the primer surface by touching it to see if it stays too tacky to paint over. Also, flex parts of the figure to make sure the primer doesn’t crack.
       
      Note: Some people have successfully used Krylon primer, and possibly other spray primers that some people have reported as problematic. And other people have reported problems with primers that some felt worked well. One difference seems to be that a light spray rather than a heavy coating is more likely to minimize tackiness. Environmental factors such as temperature and humidity are also always a big variable with any spray product.
       
       
      Recommended aerosol spray primers and paints:
      Army Painter white and coloured primers
      Krylon Dual Paint + Primer
      Duplicolor Sandable – slight tackiness possible
      Rust-oleam Painter’s Touch Ultra Cover 2x – slight tackiness possible
       
      Problem aerosol spray primers and paints:
      Krylon white primer – doesn’t bond, stays tacky
      Testors Enamel flat black – stays tacky
      Walmart Valu flat white – stays tacky
      Krylon Primer red-brown – stays tacky
      Citadel spray
       
       
      Use a Medium to Thin Your Paint or Make a Wash
       
      Water is the element in thinned paint that causes it to bead up on the Bones surface. If you try thinning your paint with a dilutant other than water, you may be able to create a mix that is closer to the consistency you like to paint with. Depending on what you use, you can even create something translucent enough to act as a wash or glaze directly on the Bones.
       
      Mediums designed to work with acrylic paints are good products to try. Examples are matte medium, glazing medium, airbrush medium. Reaper’s Brush-On Sealer can be used this way. Note that many of these products are a little less fluid than water, so they may not dramatically change the consistency of the paint (it’ll still feel a little thick rather than watery, but it will look a lot more transparent). You can also test adding just a drop or so of water to your mix of paint and medium to see if you can get closer to the consistency you prefer.
       

       
      I diluted some Master Series Bone Shadow with various mediums to make washes. From left to right, the products are listed below.
       
      Master Series Brush-On Sealer: I added one drop of water to a large drop of paint and several drops of Sealer. Worked well.
       
      Liquitex Matte Medium: A thick product. I added a drop of water. Beads up too much to work well for a wash.
       
      Liquitex Glazing Medium: Another thick product, I added a drop of water to my mix. Took longer to dry than the others. Did not sit in crevices well enough to work well for a wash. Very shiny finish.
       
      Folk Art Glass & Tile Medium: Applied well, dried quickly. Even application of the colour.
       
      Delta Ceramcoat All-Purpose Sealer: Worked decently, seems a bit more inclined to pool in the crevices with less colouring on the surfaces. Shiny finish.
       
      ADDEDUM (not pictured)
       
      Golden Acrylic Flow Release (undiluted): Applied well. Took a little while to dry. Shiny finish.
       
      Reaper Flow Improver: Applied well. Took a little while to dry. Finish is shiny in areas where wash pooled.
       
       
      Use a Medium as a Primer
       
      Because of how well acrylic based products adhere to the Bones material, it is also possible to use mediums as a primer alternative. Once dry, you can paint over them using thinned paint. These are applied by brush, or possibly with an airbrush.
       
      I tested a number of different brush-on products on some Bones Cave Trolls. These were straight out of the package and had not been cleaned. After the products dried, I applied a thin coat of paint to see how it behaved over each product.
       

       
      Reaper Master Series Brush-On Primer: Exhibited slight pulling away from some high or curved surfaces, though generally it just required running the brush over that section again to establish coverage. Dried quickly.
       
      Reaper Master Series Brush-On Sealer: No significant beading. Dried quickly. Paint was less durable than with the other products, see the durability testing section for more details and pictures.
       
      Golden Airbrush Medium: Bubbled a bit when applied, thin enough to pool a bit in depressions. Took more than 40 minutes to dry. This product works well if you use a drop or three to thin paint down for a base coat, although it does increase the drying time slightly. Due to it drying time, this is not the best choice as a primer alternative or for thinning washes that will be applied directly over Bones.
       
      Liquitex Matte Medium: Somewhat thick. Minor beading and pulling away. Significant beading when thinned with water. Dried quickly. When paint was applied, there were still some mild occurrences of paint pulling away from higher/curved areas.
       
      Liquitex Glazing Medium: Pretty thick consistency. Dried fairly quickly. The paint coat still beaded a little.
       
      Folk Art Glass & Tile Medium: Dried fairly quickly. Paint went on quite nicely. Also works on metal miniatures.
       
      Delta Ceramcoat All-Purpose Sealer: Dried quickly. The paint layer exhibited slightly pulling way.
       
      Folk Art Blending Gel: Extremely thick. Beaded up too much to use. Not pictured as it worked too poorly to continue to the testing stage.
       
       
      Speed Paint Drying with a Hairdryer
       
      Whether on a Bones or metal miniature, if you find that your paint is taking too long to dry, you can speed up the drying by using a hairdryer on the low setting on the paint. If the paint you’re drying is a wash, you should let it dry naturally for a little bit, or you risk blowing the paint out of the crevices and depressions you want to darken.
       
       
      Testing the First Coats for Durability
       
      Once you get your paint applied, you want to make sure that it stays there. In my experiments, the most durable Bones miniatures are those where the first coat applied to the miniature is undiluted Master Series paint. Several of the other substances I tested were pretty close in durability, but it should be noted that there were a few that performed poorly.
       

       
      I painted these ghosts in August 2012. They accompanied me to Gen Con and Pax Prime 2012, stored loose with some unpainted Bones in a plastic container I carried in my backpack. Their travels included a six hour car ride and return plane trip. At the conventions they were handled extensively by dozens upon dozens of people, including being tossed on tables. The paint jobs were stressed pretty much equally through the Gen Con trials. The ghost painted only with Reaper Master Series paint was handled a lot more than the others during the Pax Prime trials.
       
      The ghost sculpt has some thin and thus particularly bendy areas, most notably on the hood and where it meets the tombstone. I flexed these parts by hand repeatedly to additionally stress the paint. Unfortunately I chose poor colours to easily be able to see all the damage in the photos.
       
      After the first coat I used painting techniques of thinned layers and washes with no difficulty and with the same effect on each of the miniatures. From left to right the first coat on each miniature was as follows.
       
      Undiluted Reaper Master Series Paint: Displayed the least damage during the Gen Con trials. Following Pax, has some chips at the flex point on the hood and near the tombstone. Was handled a lot more than the other figures.
       
      Reaper Master Series Brush-On White Primer: A few very small chips at the flex points, and some paint has scraped off a few sharp protruding areas. (Edge of the hood, finger tips on one hand.)
       
      Dupli-Color Sandable White Primer Spray: The unpainted base stayed slightly tacky to the touch for weeks after priming. The figure has several small areas where paint was scraped off, but only one chip on a flex point.
       
      Testors Dullcote Spray: This product created a good surface for painting, but performed very poorly in the paint durability tests, and I would not recommend using it as a primer substitute if you plan to use your Bones for gaming. Chips formed on the major flex points early in the Gen Con testing, and the paint has flaked off extensively from there. The figure also has some small areas of scraping damage, but those are no more notable than on the Brush-On Primer or Dupli-Color figures.
       

       
      I wanted to perform a similar test with the other surface preparation products I tried. First I painted on an additional coat or two of paint. Then I placed the figures loose in a plastic box with some other Bones, a wooden, MDF and plastic base, and a metal figure. After wrapping the box in a towel secured with rubber bands, I put it in my dryer on the air setting for 10 minutes or so. The green painted areas on each figure are those that were painted over the primer alternatives. The brown painted areas are Master Series Paint directly on the Bones surface. (These were part of tests for methods to remove mould lines.) The brown areas on each exhibit very little damage. Some have none, some have a few small chips or scrapes. (However it should be noted the brown area of this sculpt has far fewer surface protrusions than where the green was painted.)
       

       
      From left to right: Reaper Master Series Brush-On Primer White; Reaper Master Series Brush-On Sealer; Golden Airbrush Medium; Liquitex Matte Medium.
       
      Three of the four show pretty similar levels of damage. The figure painted with Brush-On Sealer as a primer displays the most paint damage of all figures tested in this series.
       

       
      From left to right: Liquitex Glazing Medium; Folk Art Glass & Tile Medium; Delta Ceramcoat All-Purpose Sealer.
       
      Damage levels are pretty similar to the better performers above. The Folk Art Glass & Tile Medium and Liquitex Glazing Medium performed the best of the seven products tested. (The Folk Art Glass & Tile Medium performed better in terms of acting as a primer, and is inexpensive, so would be my recommendation between those two.)
    • By Wren
      I put together a few documents related to using Bones. I've submitted these to the Craft section of the website, but as it may be a little while before Reaper has the time available to add them, Bryan suggested that I post them here.
       
      Bones - Frequently Asked Questions (this document)
      Bones - Preparation (mould line removal, glue, putty, etc.)
      Bones - The First Coat is the Difference (primer, primer alternatives, paint durability)
       
      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
      Bones Miniatures: Frequently Asked Questions
       
      What are Bones Miniatures?
       
      The Bones material is a polymer plastic. It is light-weight and slightly flexible, and is very durable. You can paint a Bones figure straight out of the package, and that paint job will also be pretty durable. Bones figures are as detailed as metal figures, for a much lower cost. Bones miniatures are produced with integral (built-in) bases, but it is easy to cut the miniature off of the base if you prefer to put it on something else. It is also easy to cut the figures apart to convert them into different poses or change weapons.
       
       
      What is the bare minimum I need to know to start painting my Bones right now!
       
      If you want background on why these are the recommendations or what other alternatives might also work, read the rest of this document, Painting Bones Miniatures: Preparation and Painting Bones Miniatures: The First Coat is the Difference.
       
      Remove Mould Lines
      Remove by slicing just under the mould lines with a hobby knife, in a similar motion to paring vegetable or hand-sharpening a pencil. Files work best if you file in one direction, then remove burrs by filing in the opposite direction.
       
      Reshape Bent Parts
      Dip the misshapen piece in boiling water for a minute or two, remove and move into desired position, then immediately hold in ice water for a few minutes. NOTE: Read additional information in this document for safety recommendations!
       
      What Glue to Use
      Superglue aka cyanoacrylate works best to glue Bones to itself or other materials.
       
      What Putty to Use
      All major brands of putty tested work with bones. (Green Stuff, Milliput, etc.)
       
      What Works as a Paint Stripper
      Soak figure in Simple Green Concentrated All Purpose Cleaner for 12 – 24 hours, then scrub it with an old toothbrush.
       
      Best Primer
      None. Start with a first coat of undiluted Reaper Master Series Paint, then paint as normal from there. This is the best choice for durability and a good painting surface. Other acrylic paints that work with miniatures should have similar results. Paint can be applied with a brush or airbrush (diluted paint seems to work with an airbrush.)
       
      Best Primer if You Want to Prime Anyway
      Reaper Master Series Brush-On Primer in black or white, or Folk Art Glass & Tile Medium (also brush-on.)
       
      Best Spray Primer
      Many aerosol primers will not cure completely on Bones. Reaper forum members have reported good results with the Army Painter sprays.
       
      How to Do a Wash Directly on Bones
      Thin your wash with one of the following mediums and just a small amount of water if necessary: Master Series Brush-On Sealer, Folk Art Glass & Tile Medium, Delta Ceramcoat All-Purpose Sealer.
       
       
      Can you really paint Bones miniatures straight out of the package?
       
      Absolutely! However, if you’ve ever painted metal, resin or plastic figures in the past, you may notice some differences in how the first coat of paint behaves. Paint diluted with water (even just a drop or two for a thinned base coat) may bead up and pull away from crevices. The more water you add to the paint, the more you’ll notice this effect, so water-thinned washes used directly on the Bones material don’t really work. That first coat of paint may also take a little longer to dry.
       
      Most people find that the paint applies a little better if you first wash the figure. Just scrub it with a little dish soap and a toothbrush and allow it to dry before you start to paint. Another alternative is to apply a primer or another surface preparation that works with the Bones material as the first coat.
       
      Once you get that first coat on, you can use highly thinned paint in subsequent layers and it should behave pretty much the same as on any other figure.
       
      For more information, methods to use thinned paint directly on the Bones surface, tips for quicker drying and a list of primers that do (or don’t) work with Bones, please see the Craft document Painting Bones Miniatures: The First Coat is the Difference.
       
       
      What kinds of paint work on Bones Miniatures?
       
      The Bones material is designed to work with Reaper’s Master Series and Master Series HD lines of paint. Internal testing and feedback from customers suggests that Bones also works well with the other major miniature paint lines, including Reaper’s discontinued Pro Paints, Vallejo Game Color, Vallejo Model Color, Privateer Press’ P3 Paints, and Games Workshop. Artists’ acrylic paint are also likely to work on Bones.
       
      However, please note that Reaper does not offer any guarantee or assurance that the Bones miniatures will work with any particular paint other than Master Series and Master Series HD. You are advised to test your preferred paint on a Bones figure to decide for yourself how well it works. If your paint does not work well on bare Bones, you can prepare the surface with a coat of Master Series paint and it will likely work over that.
       
       
      How do I remove the mould lines from a Bones figure?
       
      Like all miniatures, Bones figures have small mould lines as a result of the manufacturing process. You do not need to remove these to paint or use a Bones, but many people prefer to remove them for aesthetic reasons. You can remove these with the same tools you would use on a metal figure – hobby knife, files, and/or sandpaper. However, you may find that you need to use these materials in a slightly different way.
       
      Hobby knives work best if you slice under and along the mould line in a paring motion rather than scraping them along the mould line. With files and sandpaper, file in one direction perpendicular to the mould line. If you find you have burrs of material remaining, lightly file those off moving the tool in the opposite direction.
       
       
      How Durable is the Bones Material?
       
      Bones figures are remarkably durable, and not just in comparison to metal and resin figures. People have dropped Bones from a height of one storey, ground them underfoot, driven over them with a car, carried them loose in backpacks and pockets, and they’ve sustained no damage.
       
      The light weight of the material means drops and falls hit with much less mass behind them. The give of the material means it’s much better able to absorb impact, where a brittle material like resin will likely break.
       
      They’re not indestructible, but they can take an impressive amount of damage. We had several Bones figures out at the PAX Prime 2012 convention for people to examine and abuse. We bounced them off the floor, and invited dozens of people to step on them. One of the small kobolds with narrow diameter legs did break at one ankle on the third day. Another figure suffered a very small area of damage due to the friction generated by someone’s shoe grinding it across the floor.
       
       
      If Bones are so durable, is it hard to cut them up for conversions? What glue should I use?
       
      The Bones material cuts easily with a sharp hobby knife. Cuts have smooth edges and do not deform surrounding material as often happens with metal. So it is an easy matter to swap a head from one figure to another, or cut off an arm and reposition it slightly so you can customize individual figures within a unit. All it takes to glue them back together is regular superglue (cyanoacrylate). You can also use superglue to adhere Bones to metal or wood. Green Stuff and other two-part putties work well if you need to fill gaps or sculpt on additional details. Pinning is a good idea when attaching metal parts to a Bones miniature, as the added weight of the metal will otherwise make the join weaker. The plastic parts are quite stable when glued together, but pinning doesn’t hurt in plastic-to-plastic conversions, either.
       
       
      How durable is a painted Bones figure, though?
       
      Bones miniatures painted with Master Series and Master Series HD paint are surprisingly durable. You probably don’t want to grind one underfoot or drive over it with your car, but you’ll be amazed at what they can handle. Figures are unlikely to experience notable damage to the paint from regular handling, bumping against each other on the table, or getting knocked over, even when playing with the most ham-handed of players.
       
      My painted test figures survived being tossed unsecured in a plastic box with a bunch of unpainted Bones that was carried around two conventions (PAX Prime and Gen Con 2012). They were handled by hundreds of people and literally and repeatedly thrown onto tables from heights of several feet. They have some dings and chips, but the bulk of the paint jobs survived. The paint on these figures had not been coated with any sort of protective sealer.
       
      The durability of other brands of paint may vary. I have not done the same sort of extensive testing with other brands of paint. In my limited testing of how well other brands of paint apply to bare Bones, I did notice that Vallejo Model Color paints seemed to rub off the figure pretty easily. I did not notice that happening with the other brands I tested. (P3, Vallejo Game Color, Pro Paint, Adikolor.)
       
       
      Can you remove unwanted paint from a Bones figure?
       
      Sometimes painting a figure doesn’t go exactly as planned. If you would like to strip the paint from a Bones figure so you can start from scratch to paint it another way, just drop it into a dish of Simple Green Concentrated All Purpose Cleaner for 12 – 24 hours, then scrub it with an old toothbrush and it is ready to paint again. Some paint colours may leave a stain on the Bones material, but should not leave any texture or affect subsequent layers of paint. Simple Green in an eco-friendly cleaner sold in most hardware stores and some grocery stores. Brake fluid also works, though is a much more toxic material.
       
       
      Are Bones figures less detailed than their metal counterparts?
       
      Bones figures are bright white, which makes them hard to photograph. A number of people who have lacked confidence in the product quality based on the photographs in the online store have been pleasantly surprised by them once they can look at one in person. However, there are also a few people who feel the quality of the Bones is a little less than that of their metal counterparts. When available, Reaper’s online store includes photographs of painted versions of the figures that may give you a better idea, but looking at Bones yourself in person is really the only way to find out how you feel about them.
       
      I compared one of the smaller Bones, Dwarf Warrior 77011, against his counterpart, Fulumbar 14146, under magnification. The only real difference I noted between the two was that the texture of the chainmail loin cloth and the laces on the gloves were a tiny bit shallower on the Bones figure.
       
      You can see a comparison of a Bones and metal figure of the same sculpt painted identically in this thread on the Reaper forums:
      http://www.reapermini.com/forum/index.php?/topic/47477-bathalian-bones-vs-metal-challenge/
       
       
      Do Bones have sharp edges on weapons?
       
      Weapons and the like on Bones figures are cast at pretty much the same thickness as similar parts on Reaper’s metal figures. However, since Bones is a flexible plastic material, you will never be able to shave or file down an edge or a point to the same sharpness that you can achieve with a metal figure.
       
       
      Are the photographs of Bones figures in the online store and catalogue the same figures as the ones for sale?
       
      The online Reaper store and catalogue photographs of Bones miniatures are taken of production run figures – the same figures that Reaper packages up to sell.
       
       
      Can I do anything about a bent spear or sword on a Bones figure?
       
      You may find that sometimes the thinner parts on Bones, like spears and swords, will look a little bent. Or the figure might be leaning back or forward too much on its ankles. If you want to straighten those out, hold the figure with tongs or in a colander, and dip it into boiling or near boiling water for at least a minute or two. Remove it from the water, reposition the part, and immediately dunk it into a bowl of ice water for at least a minute. It should hold in the new position. If you expose the figure to heat at a later time, it may revert to its original position. For this reason, if you want to wash the figure with soap and water prior to painting, you should use cool water or wash it before you heat it to reset a warped part.
       
      Important safety notes: Please exercise caution! The Bones material may get hot when dipped in boiling water, so you should use protective gear rather than touching it with your bare fingers. The Bones material might be damaged or damage your pot if placed in direct contact with the pot surface. If you are under the age of 18, please ask your parents for permission and have them read this section before boiling Bones figures.
       
       
      Are Bones made in China or the United States?
       
      All Bones figures made prior to March 2013 were produced in China. In March 2013, Reaper installed the machine necessary to produce Bones in its factory in Texas, and began the process of transferring production in-house.
    • By Wren
      I put together a few documents related to using Bones. I've submitted these to the Craft section of the website, but as it may be a little while before Reaper has the time available to add them, Bryan suggested that I post them here.
       
      Bones - Frequently Asked Questions
      Bones - Preparation (this document)
      Bones - The First Coat is the Difference (primer, primer alternatives, paint durability)
       
      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
      Painting Bones Miniatures: Preparation
       
      Reaper’s claim that you can open a Bones miniature package and just start painting is absolutely true! However, it is also true that there are optional steps you can take to better prepare the miniature, depending upon your desired end result.
       
      Cleaning Bones Figures
       
      Undiluted paint adheres well to a Bones figure straight out of the package. However, many people find that the paint goes on more easily if the figure has been washed. Also, if you’ve had your figure out of the blister for a while, or you’ve handled it to remove mould lines or otherwise prepare it, you should clean it before painting, as it probably has dust and skin oils on it that may repel paint or cause paint to chip off. All you need to clean it is some dishwashing liquid on an old toothbrush. Give it a scrub, and then rinse it really well to get off all the soap. Let it dry before painting. (You can hurry up the drying with a hairdryer set on low.)
       
      Note that if you paint resin or metal figures, you should always clean them before painting. The moulds used to make these are dusted with powder before the miniature is cast, and the residue of that power can stick to the miniature.
       
       
      Reshaping Bent Parts
       
      Bones is a somewhat flexible plastic material that has a ‘memory’. If you bend a sword out of the way to paint the part behind it, the sword will flex back into place when you stop holding it. However, that also means that if your figure has a sword or spear that is crooked, you can’t just bend it back into place the way you can with a metal figure.
       
      To reset the position of a thinner area like a weapon or arm, hold the figure with tongs or in a sieve, and dip it into boiling or near boiling water for at least a minute or two. Remove it from the water, reposition the part, and immediately dunk it into a bowl of ice water for at least a minute. It should hold in the new position. If you expose the figure to heat at a later time, it may revert to its original position. For this reason, if you want to wash the figure with soap and water prior to painting, you should use cool water or wash it before you heat it to reset a warped part.
       
      Important safety notes: Please exercise caution! The Bones material may get hot when dipped in boiling water, so you should use protective gear rather than touching it with your bare fingers. The Bones material might be damaged or damage your pot if placed in direct contact with the pot surface. If you are under the age of 18, please ask your parents for permission and have them read this section before boiling Bones figures.
       
       
      Filling Part Gaps
       
      Some Bones miniatures are assembled from multiple pieces at the factory. These pieces are designed to fit together snugly, and the glue used to assemble them usually fills any small gap that might remain. Occasionally you might find a Bones figure with a slightly larger gap. If this bothers you, you can use Green Stuff putty (sold by Reaper) or a similar epoxy putty to fill in the gap and create a smooth surface. Alternatively, you can try dabbing a tiny bit more superglue into the gap with the end of a pointed toothpick or pin and pushing the two pieces together while the glue sets. Products like Vallejo’s Plastic Putty, Games Workshop’s Liquid Green Stuff or fine art supplies Modeling Paste are also useful for this purpose.
       

       
      If you receive a Bones figure that is assembled incorrectly or which is missing a piece, you should contact [email protected], and a Reaper representative will work with you to correct the issue.
       
       
      Removing Mould Lines
       
      Grab one of your Bones figures and take a close look at it, particularly along the sides of the figure where there are smooth areas like skin or cloth. You will see a thin ridge of plastic that sticks up slightly from the surface of the figure. (You might have to try looking at it from different angles to spot it.) That ridge is called a mould line, and you will also find it on metal or plastic miniatures, regardless of manufacturer. Miniatures are made by injecting material into a mould in the shape of the desired figure. The mould breaks apart into two halves after the material hardens so the figure can be removed. Mould lines form where the two halves of the mould meet.
       

       
      Lots of people choose to ignore mould lines, particularly if they need to paint a number of figures quickly for a game. Some people like to remove them before painting if they plan to paint the miniature as a decoration or to give as a gift. There are several tools you can use to clean off the lines. Reaper doesn’t sell these, but information on how to find them is included at the end of this section.
       

       
      One tool you can use to remove mould lines is a basic hobby knife with a sharp #11 blade, or a scalpel. With metal and hard plastic/resin miniatures, you can do that by holding the sharp edge of the blade perpendicular to the mould line and scraping it off. This does not work very well with Bones miniatures and may damage the surface. Rather, you need to position the blade just under the line and carefully slice it off, similar to the motion you would use if you were paring a potato or hand-sharpening a pencil.
       
      Another tool you can use in a similar way is a micro chisel. This is a very tiny chisel with a sharp, but not knife-edge sharp, edge. It takes very little pressure to push it just under the mould line and along the surface to slice it off. If you are nervous about knives, you might prefer this tool. You can still jab yourself with it, but the potentially for injury is much less than with a knife or scalpel.
       
      Many people use files to scrape off the mould lines on metal figures, but files tend to damage the surface of resin and some plastic figures. You can use files to clean the mould lines from Bones figures. There are two types of files – the classic toothed files (which have a pattern of lines or crosshatches etched into them), and diamond files. For either, you want small, fine tools designed for small-scale hobby work. For best results with files, carefully scrape across the mould line in one direction, moving the file perpendicular to the mould line. After you’ve removed the mould line, you may notice a few remaining stringy bits. Carefully scrape the file very lightly in the opposite direction to detach these.
       
      Sand paper and sanding sticks are another option. Use these in a similar fashion as files.
       
      Some people have also experimented with using rotary tools (like a Dremel) or a battery operated jewelry maker’s engraving pen. In my experiments with a rotary tool, I got better results with a tiny cutter (like the last item in the tools picture above, but with a smaller head). The diamond coated bit (the second to last item in the tools picture above) left a pretty rough surface. Because these tools are powered, be aware that it is possible for them to get away from you and damage the figure. It is also possible for them to injure you, and you should always take appropriate safety precautions, such as wearing goggles and safety gloves.
       
      Which of those options works the best? A lot of that comes down to personal preference and comfort, and the nature of the surface area you’re working on. For example, if you’re leery of sharp tools, you might prefer files. In my experiments, the hobby knife and micro chisel worked best over smoother, flatter areas. It was easier to get into some crevices and depressions with files and the rotary tool cutting bit. Below is a picture of the surface results I obtained with the different mould line removal tools I tested on Bones Cave Troll figures.
       

       
      From left to right: as produced by factory; exacto knife; micro chisel; diamond files.
       

       
      From left to right: crosshatch tooth files; emery board (sand paper); rotary tool – cutter on torso, diamond coated on leg; combination of a variety of tools.
       
      ADDENDUM: Since writing this, I have also tried Alpha Precision Sanding Needles, both medium (blue) and fine (white), and highly recommend this product for removing mould lines from Bones figures.
       
      Where to buy products mentioned in this document:
       
      Hobby knife – hobby store, craft store, art store
      Micro chisel – Google search ‘mission micro chisel’ for the one pictured in this document, or do a general search on micro chisel for other possibilities
      Files – jewelry section of hobby/craft store. For online search, use the terms ‘needle file 2mm’. Looking for a 2mm diameter file set will ensure you find ones small enough for use on miniature figures.
      Rotary tool bits – hobby store, hardware store, Micro Mark online store
      Engraving pen – jewelry section of hobby/craft store
      Sanding needles - hobby/craft store
       
       
      Converting and Customizing Bones
       
      When people talk about converting a figure, they mean altering how it looks in some way. For example, you could cut the head off one figure and swap it on to another, or you could replace a large sword blade with a pin to make a rapier. Another way to customize a figure is to cut off an arm or a leg and glue it back on in a different orientation to change the pose of a figure. You can also cut a Bones figure off of its base if you’d like the option of positioning it on a pre-made or custom base of resin or metal. The Bones material cuts easily with a sharp hobby knife or sprue cutters.
       
       
      Bones and Glue
       
      Reaper recommends using cyanoacrylate glue (superglue) to glue the Bones material, whether to itself or other materials. I tested a few different kinds of glue, and in my tests the superglue bonds were the strongest.
       
      I tested three different types of glue, and how well they would attach Bones figures to various types of basing materials. The glues tested were: cyanoacrylate (superglue, HobbyTown store brand); 5-minute epoxy glue (HobbyTown store brand); white glue (Titebond brand). The base materials tested were: standard black plastic; flagstone textured metal; unfinished craft wood; MDF wood base; concrete textured resin; thin styrene/plasticard.
       
      After allowing all of the glued pieces to cure for more than a day and a half, I subjected them to a couple of tests. First, I tried pulling each figure away from the base to which it was glued. Any that survived that test were thrown together with an additional metal figure loose in a plastic container that I shook vigourously for several minutes. I also examined the figures and bases for any sign of chemical reaction between the Bones and any of the glues. I did not detect any.
       

       
      The cyanoacrylate glue bonds were demonstrably stronger than either of the others. Only one figure adhered with cyanoacrylate glue was detached from its base during the tests - I was able to pull the Bones glued to a craft wood disk off with moderate force.
       
      Only two Bones attached with 5 minute epoxy made it to the box shake testing stage – the one attached to the craft wood base, and the one attached to MDF. The box shake test broke the bonds on both of those.
       
      The white glue bonds were pretty weak, with some figures being knocked off their bases by light contact, and the rest requiring little effort to pull off. It took more effort to pull the Bones off of the white plastic base than expected, but it did come off. White glue is not the best choice for Bones conversions or for attaching Bones to bases. However, it should work as well as it does with metal figures for attaching gravel and flock textures to Bones material bases.
       
      For my initial experiment, I did not score or roughen the Bones bases or base materials, nor did I use pins. Using either or both of these should increase glue adhesion.
       
      I tested the 5 minute epoxy glue a second time on standard black plastic, flagstone textured metal, MDF wood, concrete textured resin, and styrene/plasticard. For this second test, I scored lines into the base of the Bones figure and the surface of the base with a hobby knife. After allowing the glue to set for a couple of days, I tried pulling the figures off of their bases. I was able to pull the figures off of the styrene and MDF bases with moderate force, and to remove the figure from the metal base with a little more effort. The figures on the black plastic and resin bases remained in place. For the next stage of testing, I placed these loose, with other figures and items, into a plastic container, which I shook vigourously and threw onto the ground several times. The figures on the black plastic and resin bases remained attached.
       
       
      Bones and Epoxy Putties
       
      Epoxy putties such as Green Stuff can be used to alter and customize a figure, and to fill and smooth gaps left after converting or assembling multi-piece miniatures. These are two part putties. Once you mix them together, they stay workable for an hour or two, and fully cure within four to six hours. I tested the putties I had available on Bones figures. For each skeleton spearman, I moulded a cylinder of putty around its spear, and a crest on its head. I gave the putties a full day to cure and then tested them. I tried to bend the spears under and to either side of the putty cylinders. I worked to pull the crests off of their heads. Then I threw all of the spearmen loose in a plastic box and shook it for several minutes.
       

       
      From left to right in the above photograph, the putties I tested were: Kneadatite (Green Stuff); Brown Stuff; ProCreate; Milliput Yellow-Grey; Apoxie Sculpt; GF9 Gray Stuff; Magic Sculpt.
       
      After the tests, I examined the figures. I found no signs of damage from the testing on any of them, nor any reaction with the Bones material. All but the Milliput and Apoxie Sculpt crests detached from the figures with mild to moderate force. Of the ones that detached, the ProCreate crest took the most effort to remove. However, it should be noted that the same thing can happen with putty on metal figures, and that it is easy to glue on a custom-shaped part like that.
       
      NOTE: The crests on the two end figures popped off during testing. I placed them back on for the photograph. Due to the differing natures of the putties, the sculpting on the two that stayed in place was a slightly different shape, which may have contributed to them being harder to pop off.
       
       
      Smoothing Rough Areas
       
      If you remove the mould lines from your figure or do any conversions to it, you may find that it has areas where the surface looks a little rough. Reaper makes a product called Brush-On Sealer. You can paint a coat or three of this over a rough area to smooth it over. It won’t look any different to your eye, but once you put a coat of paint over it, the area will appear much smoother. If you don’t notice that an area is rough until after you’ve started painting, stop and apply some Sealer, then paint another layer of paint over it and you’ll get that same smoothing effect. Using Brush-On Sealer to smooth rough areas also works on metal or resin miniatures. Note that more than a coat or two of the Sealer will start to obscure small, finely sculpted details.
       
      The Brush-On Sealer is essentially acrylic medium. (Or what makes up paint apart from the pigment colour and binders.) There are other products you can experiment with for a similar effect – gloss sealer, matte medium, glaze medium. These may or may not work the same way, but if you happen to have some around you can try it until you get your hands on some Brush-On Sealer.
       

       
      To demonstrate the effectiveness of the Brush-On Sealer, I applied several tools to the bottom of a Bones Purple Worm to scratch and gouge it. The picture on the left shows the surface following a wash of paint to make the damage easier to spot. The picture on the right shows the same figure after I applied three coats of Brush-On Sealer, two coats of white paint and the same paint wash. There are still a few areas of damage apparent, but the majority of the surface is smooth and ready to paint. (And I could easily apply another coat or two to the problem areas.) As you can see from the text in the middle, the Brush-On Sealer will also fill in some detail, so it is best not to use more than one coat on areas of intricate sculpted detail.
       
       
      Removing Paint from a Bones Figure
       
      Sometimes painting a figure doesn’t go exactly as planned. If you would like to strip the paint from a Bones figure so you can start from scratch to paint it another way, just drop it into a dish of Simple Green Concentrated All Purpose Cleaner for 12 – 24 hours, then scrub it with an old toothbrush and it is ready to paint again. Some paint colours may leave a stain on the Bones material, but should not leave any texture or affect subsequent layers of paint. Simple Green in an eco-friendly cleaner sold in most hardware stores and some grocery stores. Brake fluid also works, though is a much more toxic material.
    • By MoonglowMinis
      Here's a simple one for you.  Painted the Great Worm as a Purple Worm to the surprise of no one.


       
      More Photos Below the Spoiler:
       
    • By Metalchaos
      Good Friday everyone, I just took some pictures of the 02479, Ettin I completed last night. This is a Dark Heaven Legends metal model that was sculpted by Jason Wiebe. It stand on a 50mm base and I painted it with Reaper MSP paint. Coincidently, I was delighted to see the amazing upcoming two-headed Troll also sculpted by Jason Wiebe that was announced last night during Reaper Live #117 on Twitch. (see the image under spoiler and the end of the post).
       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

       
       
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